Machiavelli used the Persian empire of Darius III, conquered by Alexander the Great, to illustrate this point and then noted that the Medici, if they think about it, will find this historical example similar to the "kingdom of the Turk" (Ottoman Empire) in their time – making this a potentially easier conquest to hold than France would be. Machiavelli notes that a prince is praised for keeping his word. For intellectual strength, he is advised to study great military men so he may imitate their successes and avoid their mistakes. In fact, he was apparently influencing both Catholic and Protestant kings. De’ principati misti. John Gotti and Roy DeMeo would regularly quote The Prince and consider it to be the Nel Principe vuole individuare le qualità che il principe deve avere per essere lodato e non disprezzato dai sudditi dato che il principe deve far tutto al fine di evitare il loro odio. Acquistalo su libreriauniversitaria.it! "Mafia Bible". If he cannot raise a formidable army, but must rely on defense, he must fortify his city. Machiavelli's ideas on how to accrue honour and power as a leader had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west, helped by the new technology of the printing press. Machiavelli argues that fortune is only the judge of half of our actions and that we have control over the other half with "sweat", prudence and virtue. Machiavelli gives three options: Machiavelli advises the ruler to go the first route, stating that if a prince doesn't destroy a city, he can expect "to be destroyed by it".[20]. [61], 20th-century Italian-American mobsters were influenced by The Prince. Machiavelli cites Cesare Borgia as an example of a lucky prince who escaped this pattern. Therefore, a prince must have the means to force his supporters to keep supporting him even when they start having second thoughts, otherwise he will lose his power. Those who are not bound to the new prince. Having discussed the various types of principalities, Machiavelli turns to the ways a state can attack other territories or defend itself. Managing major reforms can show off a Prince's virtue and give him glory. Only armed prophets, like Moses, succeed in bringing lasting change. He associated these goals with a need for "virtue" and "prudence" in a leader, and saw such virtues as essential to good politics. Through cunning political maneuvers, he managed to secure his power base. He uses Septimius Severus as a model for new rulers to emulate, as he "embodied both the fox and the lion". Because, says Machiavelli, he wants to write something useful to those who understand, he thought it more fitting "to go directly to the effectual truth ("verità effettuale") of the thing than to the imagination of it". Machiavelli advises the ruler to become a "great liar and deceiver", and that men are so easy to deceive, that the ruler won't have an issue with lying to others. Machiavelli notes in this chapter on the "natural and ordinary desire to acquire" and as such, those who act on this desire can be "praised or blamed" depending on the success of their acquisitions. This became the theme of much future political discourse in Europe during the 17th century. [3], Although The Prince was written as if it were a traditional work in the mirrors for princes style, it is generally agreed that it was especially innovative. It is known from his personal correspondence that it was written during 1513, the year after the Medici took control of Florence, and a few months after Machiavelli's arrest, torture, and banishment by the in-coming Medici regime. Once again these need to be divided into two types: those with a weak spirit (a prince can make use of them if they are of good counsel) and those who shun being bound because of their own ambition (these should be watched and feared as enemies). He believes that by taking this profession an aspiring prince will be able to acquire a state, and will be able to maintain what he has gained. Machiavelli begins this chapter by addressing how mercy can be misused which will harm the prince and his dominion. This section is one where Machiavelli's pragmatic ideal can be seen most clearly. But it is unusual that the Medici family's position of Papal power is openly named as something that should be used as a personal power base, as a tool of secular politics. Machiavelli was not the first thinker to notice this pattern. Then, if he decides to discontinue or limit his generosity, he will be labeled as a miser. The "great" wish to oppress and rule the "people", while the "people" wish not to be ruled or oppressed. Fear is used as a means to ensure obedience from his subjects, and security for the prince. They assign a leader who can be popular to the people while the great benefit, or a strong authority defending the people against the great. According to Strauss (1958:291) Machiavelli refers to Xenophon more than Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero put together. [52], Modern materialist philosophy developed in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, starting in the generations after Machiavelli. As pointed out by Gilbert (1938:206) it was traditional in the genre of Mirrors of Princes to mention fortune, but "Fortune pervades The Prince as she does no other similar work". When the kingdom revolves around the king, with everyone else his servant, then it is difficult to enter but easy to hold. This type of "princedom" refers for example explicitly to the Catholic church, which is of course not traditionally thought of as a princedom. At his signal, his soldiers killed all the senators and the wealthiest citizens, completely destroying the old oligarchy. This was carried out with the permission of the Medici pope Clement VII, but "long before then, in fact since the first appearance of The Prince in manuscript, controversy had swirled about his writings". He justifies this by saying that men are wicked, and never keep their words, therefore the ruler doesn't have to keep his. In fact, he must sometimes deliberately choose evil: He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation.[25]. According to Machiavelli, when a prince comes to power through luck or the blessings of powerful figures within the regime, he typically has an easy time gaining power but a hard time keeping it thereafter, because his power is dependent on his benefactors' goodwill. Nel 1498 entra nell'amministrazione della repubblica fiorentina e svolge attività diplomatica. This chapter is possibly the most well-known of the work, and it is important because of the reasoning behind Machiavelli's famous idea that it is better to be feared than loved. This categorization of regime types is also "un-Aristotelian"[13] and apparently simpler than the traditional one found for example in Aristotle's Politics, which divides regimes into those ruled by a single monarch, an oligarchy, or by the people, in a democracy. This makes it an ideal text for Machiavelli to have used. Of particular interest for example, are some of his letters to. Descrizione Il principe, celebre trattato di dottrina politica scritto da Niccolò Machiavelli nel 1513, espone le caratteristiche dei principati e dei metodi per mantenerli e conquistarli. Machiavelli divides the fears which monarchs should have into internal (domestic) and external (foreign) fears. For, as Machiavelli states, “A prince needs to have the discernment to recognize the good or bad in what another says or does even though he has no acumen himself". The way in which the word state came to acquire this modern type of meaning during the Renaissance has been the subject of much academic debate, with this sentence and similar ones in the works of Machiavelli being considered particularly important.[10]. Machiavelli is featured as a character in the, The republicanism in seventeenth-century England which led to the. He does not command the loyalty of the armies and officials that maintain his authority, and these can be withdrawn from him at a whim. In this chapter, Machiavelli uses "beasts" as a metaphor for unscrupulous behavior. The book had originally been intended for Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, young Lorenzo's uncle, who however died in 1516. A principality is not the only outcome possible from these appetites, because it can also lead to either "liberty" or "license". Il Principe è un trattato di dottrina politica di Niccolò Machiavelli. L'opera è stata, nel contempo, al centro di dibattiti, saggi, riflessioni para-politiche, artistiche, filosofiche. More importantly, and less traditionally, he distinguishes new princedoms from hereditary established princedoms. Machiavelli, long a diplomat for the Florentine Republic, was personally acquainted with many of the great leaders of the Renaissance including Lorenzo de Medici (the dedicatee of Il Principe), Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian, Catherine Sforza, and Piero Soderini. Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces, troops borrowed from an ally, because if they win, the employer is under their favor and if they lose, he is ruined. King Ferdinand of Spain is cited by Machiavelli as an example of a monarch who gained esteem by showing his ability through great feats and who, in the name of religion, conquered many territories and kept his subjects occupied so that they had no chance to rebel. Machiavelli generalizes that there were several virtuous Roman ways to hold a newly acquired province, using a republic as an example of how new princes can act: More generally, Machiavelli emphasizes that one should have regard not only for present problems but also for the future ones. Machiavelli mentions that placing fortresses in conquered territories, although it sometimes works, often fails. This includes the Catholic Counter Reformation writers summarised by Bireley: Giovanni Botero, Justus Lipsius, Carlo Scribani, Adam Contzen, Pedro de Ribadeneira, and Diego de Saavedra Fajardo. However, a prince that relies solely on fortifications or on the help of others and stands on the defensive is not self-sufficient. A prince who is diligent in times of peace will be ready in times of adversity. Since there are many possible qualities that a prince can be said to possess, he must not be overly concerned about having all the good ones. Grazie alla sua esperienza diplomatica tratteggia la figura del governante ideale, in grado di supportare uno stato forte e reggere sia agli attacchi esterni che agli stessi sudditi, senza farsi influenzare dalla morale ma considerando solo la realtà delle valutazioni politiche. [11] He deals with hereditary princedoms quickly in Chapter 2, saying that they are much easier to rule. Il principe, Libro di Niccolò Machiavelli. Sconto 5% e Spedizione gratuita per ordini superiori a 25 euro.